Female Genital Mutilation

Types of FGM

The World Health Organization classifies FGM into four types, based on its anatomical extent and severity:

Source of the images: WHO, 2018.

Type I: partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy);


Type II: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the inner labia, with or without excision of the outer labia (excision);


Type III: narrowing of the vaginal opening by creating a covering seal, formed by cutting and repositioning the inner or outer labia, with or without removal of the clitoris (infibulation);


Type IV: all other harmful procedures to the external genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g. perforating, incising, scraping or cauterising the area.